Managing the Unexpected
High Reliability develops an organization’s strengths through individual actions.
Shared attitudes fill the gap between organization and the individual to determine High Reliability.
HRO Model Overview | Perrow/Complex Organizations | Mercer/Naval Aviation | High Reliability Organizations | Roberts & Libuser/Organizational Psychology | Weick and Sutcliffe/Social Psychology | Slagmolen/Change | van Stralen/Neuropsychology | HRO & Normal Accident Theory
Comparison of Roberts/Weick/van Stralen
As we have described in this section, High Reliability developed to make an organization stronger (Mercer) and for an individual to operate in uncertainty or under threat (van Stralen). People come together to create High Reliability (Weick) in an organization designed for this (Roberts). It is the individual who acts but the organization must allow that action.
|Field Model||Public Health||Operators & Participants||Organizational Behavior|
|Direction of Study||From healthy environment toward disaster (anterograde)||From disaster/crisis, covert state, prevention||From routine operations toward crisis (retrograde)|
|Time of Analysis/Function (Direction)||Proactive||Interactive||Reactive|
|Methods||Anticipation, prevention||Interactive, real-time assessment and management||Planning|
This is the zone of threat to the individual and will activate the person’s threat response. There are no observers here as each person will respond differently and in ways we cannot predict. Plans and principles become self-referential and lose objectivity as it is impossible to describe the environment or actions without “What would I have done?”
|Discipline||Neuro-psychology||Civil Engineering||Social Psychology||Organiz-ational Psychology||Sociology||Naval Aviation, Nuclear Propulsion|
|Level of Analysis/ Function||Individual||Environment||Social||Organization (Structure)||Society||Operations|
|Principle||Threat, Team, Formation||Uncertainty and Threat, Working Environment||Cognitive Dissonance with Action||Commun-ication||Complex Organizations||Command Philosophy|
|Method||Reasoning||Design and Interaction||Interactions between people and environment||Organiz-ational Behavior||Interactions between people and technology||Command and Leadership|
|Goal or Purpose||Responsive-
|Hazard Recognition||Collective Mindfulness and Enactment||Identify High Reliability||Decisions regarding Technology||Strength, Agility, Resilience|
|Result||Performance under Uncertainty||Interactive, Real-Time Risk Assessment and Management||High Reliability Organization||High Reliability Organization||Normal Accidents||High Reliability Operations/ Organizing|